Everything is Fiction: A Discursive Year in Review

One of the benefits of using WordPress to host this blog is it provides some rather amusing data.

For example, it keeps tabs on where each post has been viewed.  This provides the excitement of knowing there are people in Nepal who’ve read something that I wrote.  As well, it allows me the ability to keep track of how many Americans have viewed my blog, versus Brits.

Another thing it does is provide me alerts, such as the one I received last week, wishing me a ‘Happy Anniversary!’

So, apparently, it’s been a year.

To celebrate, I thought I’d put together a little year in review.  Which then got me thinking: a blog like this, with weekly updates, is like a diary, an on-line cache not only of my obscure thoughts, but about the things that have inspired those thoughts throughout the year.  Or rather, it’s like an auto-ethnographic discursive source, where I am both anthropologist and subject, so that in equal measure, the text, this text, is like a fieldwork account, a window onto my own unique cultural perspective.

With this in mind, this review is something of a look back, not just for my dear readers, but for myself as well: a short trip back in time to see not only what it is that I have done, but how those things have shaped my way of thinking about my surrounding world.

I present to you, then, my year in review.

18 November 2014, Everything is Fiction

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This first post was nothing more than an introduction, a foundation on which to build the theme of the whole blog.  I wrote it when, at that time, I had somehow deluded myself into thinking I’d be done with the Thesis by Christmas.  As such, it is heavily influenced by my Conclusion, particularly the quotes I provide concerning the use of the term ‘fiction’ and how it challenges any sort of normative understanding we might have about texts that are considered ‘true’ or ‘authentic.’

25 November 2014, Harry Potter and the Precarious Use of Fiction


The second post came by accident.  For our tutorials that week on a course called ‘Modern Religious and Ethical Debates in Contemporary Fiction,’ we had read the last of the Harry Potter novels.  Our discussion for the week was on the religious implications in the book (Harry’s ‘Christian world’ in contrast to the wizarding world in which he now found himself), as well as the public’s perception of ‘witchcraft via a popular medium.  One of the students in my tutorial chose to shape they’re presentation of the novel around an on-line ‘fan fiction’ called “Hogwarts School of Prayer and Miracles,” by a Grace Ann Parsons under the name ‘aproudhousewife.’  While we enjoyed a nice conversation about how this fan fiction represented a type of religious identity, via the language used by the author in her argument against J.K. Rowling’s own fictional representation of witchcraft, we had an even more fun chat about the precariousness of using fiction when examining identity, as I revealed the fact that though popular, Grace Ann Parson’s fan fiction was not real.  It was, in fact, an example of something called ‘Poe’s Law:’ no matter how ridiculous or humorous a fundamentalist argument is, and though it might be fake, it is inevitable that someone will confuse it for real, because of his or her perceptions of fundamentalism as being ridiculous or humorous.  Tread lightly, was my conclusion, as all writing, whether a novel or an ethnography, is ‘fiction,’ due to the fact that it is inherently artificial.

2 December 2014, What do you call it when a gentile writes a post about Jewishness?


This post, like the previous one, was inspired by a tutorial.  This time, we had just read Howard Jacobson’s The Finkler Question, and we’re discussing the use of a novel as a source for ‘jewishness.’  The Finkler Question is perfect for this as the story it tells is of a gentile, obsessed with Jewish culture, struggling to identify himself as being ersatz Jewish.  The post I wrote not only discussed the use of stereotypes within written accounts, it also dealt with ones I might have considered when I visited Israel in 2014, as well as a few humorous examples from popular media such as Seinfeld, Fraser, and Mel Brooks’ History of the World Part One.  Both culturally insensitive, as well as representative, these sources proved rather useful as we delved deeper into the use of fiction as an ethnographic source.

 9 December 2014, Rumsfeldian Atheism


I few years back I graciously accepted the offer to present a paper at the Sociology of Religion Study Group (SOCREL) Conference held at the University of Chester, by a friend whose research focuses (in part) on conspiracy theories.  I didn’t really know all that much about conspiracy theories, aside from the few things I remembered from my degree on New Religious Movements, nor did I have a clue on how to combine that lack of knowledge with my research on Atheism.  So, I cobbled together some related details, out of which emerged this theory of Atheism.  In short, when we take Donald Rumsfeld‘s famous tautological reasoning for declaring war on Iraq (Known knowns, Known unknowns, and Unknown unknowns) with the philosophical foundation of the dichotomy between Theism and Atheism, we find some interesting similarities: Known knowns (Theism and Atheism), Known unknown (practical agnosticism), and Unknown unknowns (complete ignorance of both Theism and Atheism).

16 December 2014, The Bone Wars


When I attended the Non-Religion and Secularity Research Network’s conference in 2012 I wanted to present my criticism of the term ‘non-religion’ in a way that was both memorable, as well as humorous.  My thinking was, if I was going to be utterly critical of the term’s usage, I might as well do that in a way that was rather funny.  I focused my presentation, then, on the nominal battle over whether or not the Brontosaurus actually ever existed, as its title came from a mis-named larger sample of the Apatosaurus.  The essence of my argument was as follows: in his attempt at beating his rival by discovering and labelling more specimens, Othniel Charles Marsh called the Apatosaurus something else, sort of like referring to Atheism as non-religion.

23 December 2014, Shrinkage


For a Christmas break, my traveling companion and I spent a few days in Bruges, Belgium.  Aside from biking around the city, eating waffles, and drinking delicious ales, we also went to the Church of Our Lady to see Michelangelo’s Madonna and Child.  Whilst there, I noticed an oddity about the baby Jesus: he was uncircumcised.  Surely, I thought out loud, in a church, after eight days as Jewish boy would be circumcised.  Why isn’t this Jesus snipped.  I was then reminded that Michelangelo’s David, in Florence, is likewise ‘intact.’  This blog post was about the use of foreskin as a symbol of an artist’s own influence over the factual accuracies of his or her representation.  In other words, Jesus and David weren’t snipped, because Michelangelo wasn’t.  Food for thought.

30 December 2014, Parting is Such Sweet Sorrow


After it premiered, Ridley Scott’s epic, Exodus: Gods and Kings, was banned by the country of Egypt.  While it was, for me, a rather innocuous action film, for many around the world, its parting ways with the Biblical narrative not only came across as blasphemous, but as threatening as well.  Thus, it was banned.  This got me thinking.  Did this banning have anything to do with anxieties felt by some that a re-telling such as this was harmful to the sour material by reminding the audience that both are nothing more than stories?  That is, if Ridley Scott can re-write the story so easily, then is the original nothing more than a template, a plastic and bendable thing able to be re-created, and thus void of what we might perceive as some sort of ‘sacred’ something?  To conclude, by way of an answer, I posed the curious question: when the critically disliked and epic-looking Troy came out a few years back, with its predominant white cast and highly adapted re-telling of the Trojan war (which ‘historically’ took place around the same time as the Exodus out of Egypt), why was it not banned for its inaccuracies or insults to history?  Is it because we now think of the Trojan War as nothing more than a myth?

6 January 2015, Everything is Fiction: A Discussion on Narrative and Reflexivity


When I first came to Edinburgh, even before I started my degree, I had the great privilege of meeting Chris Cotter and David Robertson, the two minds behind the Religious Studies Project.  Since that first meeting, I’ve had the wonderful opportunity to be a part of a number of roundtable discussions, one of which took place at the University of Chester on the topic of narrative and reflexivity in the study of religion.  This was, in my five years in Britain, one of the most fun and rewarding conversations I’ve had on the topic of fiction, ethnography, and the use of discourse and narrative in the study of both.  Below is the link to the recording, which I encourage everyone to enjoy.

13 January 2015, A Sucker Born Every Minute


When the former Seventh-Day Adventist minister, Ryan Bell, concluded his ‘year without God’ with the announcement that he no longer believed in the existence of God, it caught my attention.  This post was about his conversion, and how I thought it related to the story of the Cardiff Giant, a hoax believed, and defended, by a curious and believing audience.  Here’s the essence of my argument:  if we were intent on understanding how beliefs become solidified, such as the way a hoax is marketed and devoured by a demanding audience, or in Bell’s case, how identity becomes constructed, is this not the ideal set of data with which to study?  That is, though it might look, through a certain lens, to be something designed or formed in such a way as to inspire criticism, is it not still something worth examining?  Or, is all of this once again a reminder that no matter how cautious or critical we are, there’s never really a sure way of knowing if something is a hoax (such as discourse observed), so that we must continually remind ourselves that in the study of ‘others,’ and regardless of objectivity, we might be nothing but ‘suckers?’

20 January 2015, Assholes: A Theory of New Atheism

not wrong

Perhaps the most popular of my posts, this one was once again inspired by a tutorial, or rather, by a course for which I tutored: ‘Atheism in Debate.’  While I have had my criticisms of this course, particularly concerning the fact that it was designed to bring in students interested in reading the four ‘New Atheist texts,’ only to ‘trick’ them into reading nineteenth-century theological apologetics, maybe my biggest point of critical discussion over the three years in which I led tutorials was the manner with which we compare the New Atheism with the Old.  How, we were often asked, do these two groups differ?  My simple answer: the New Atheists are assholes.  This is an oversimplification.  To make my argument, I used the ‘theory of the asshole’ as defined by the philosopher Aaron James, who describes an asshole as such: “a person counts as an asshole when, and only when, he systematically allows himself to enjoy special advantages in interpersonal relations out of an entrenched sense of entitlement that immunises him against the complaints of other people.” (4-5)  In order to apply this to New Atheism, I took examples where the New Atheists did just that, and thus determined them as ‘assholes.’  Which, I concluded, also made them different from their ‘older’ counterparts.  It’s not a perfect description, but it is fun.

27 January 2015, ‘Hey, at least he was a Satanist, not an Atheist.’


During a trip to Bergen, Norway, my travel companion and I took the tram out to the re-constructed Fantoft Stavkirk, that was famously burned in 1992.  Though not convicted for this particular arson, the Satanist Varg Vikernes was found to have been connected to it when he was convicted for similar crimes, as well as murder, in 1994.  In response to this information, I recalled thinking, ‘at least he was a Satanist, and not an Atheist,’ a statement I assigned to a ‘friend’ within the post itself.  Aside from providing some simple background on the rise and fall of Satanism in Norway, I used this post to present a theory that, in fact, the ‘Satan’ of the Bible was the first skeptic, a foundational precursor to modern Atheism.  I justified this via Biblical references where ‘שָׂטָן’ was associated with doubt, skepticism, or an adversarial position, such as Numbers 22:32, 1 Samuel 29:4, 2 Samuel 19:35, 1 Kings 5:4, 1 Kings 11:15, 1 Kings 11:23 and 11:25, 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, Luke 4:1-13, Luke 22:3, and John 13:27.  Or, to put it differently, examples of ‘Satan’ as a ‘Devil’s Advocate,’ such as we famously find in the Book of Job: ‘Skin for skin!’  Satan replied. ‘A man will give all he has for his own life. But now stretch out your hand and strike his flesh and bones, and he will surely curse you to your face.’ (Job 2:1-7).  I thus concluded: “in combining the lexical process of being deemed an ἄθεος (scepticism, doubt, critical debate) with the doubt, opposition, and adversarial nature of Satan (שָׂטָן; διὰβολος) we might confortably conclude here that Satan is, in fact, a representative sort of Atheism.”  

3 February 2015, A Feeling of Ownership


Presenting at conferences is something that I have found, as an academic, to be a rather rewarding experience.  Not only does it necessitate travel, it also gives one the opportunity to receive feedback from people about his or her work.  At the same time, though, it also leads to the notion that one’s work is his or her’s property.  This feeling presented itself when I met Liam Frasier and Chris Cotter briefly to discuss a roundtable we were planning for the students of our course on ‘Atheism in Debate.’  As we introduced ourselves to each other, giving the ‘elevator pitch’ of our research, I came to realise that the thing I study is a large part of my identity.  In this way, I ‘own’ it, in that it is my perspective, my interpretation, my product.  This sense of ‘ownership’ always brings me back to Malinowski, who himself saw his presentation of the Trobriands, and thus the Trobriands themselves, as his ‘property:’ “Joy: I hear the “Kiriwina” [another name for the Trobriands; more strictly the northern province of Boyowa].  I get ready; little gray, pinkish huts.  Photos.  Feeling of ownership: It is I who will describe them or create them.” (Malinowski, A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term, 1967, 140).

10 February 2015, Especially Our Snipers

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Another post inspired by a film, this time in response to the debate taking place about the ‘accuracy’ of Clint Eastwood’s Oscar nominated film, American Sniper.  While many of the ‘facts’ about Chris Kyle’s life have become exaggerated myths, the exaggeration is, as I argued, not unlike the ‘bumper sticker arguments’ we might see attached to people’s cars.  While these might reflect opinions that are as affixed as the stickers themselves, they also represent a type of narrative statement: a story, told with few words, that reflect a facet of the individual who places them.  As a conclusion, I made this argument: “when we see these sorts of images, perhaps we might be better off simply understanding that they represent a narrative, a means with which certain individuals define themselves, either for or against the statements made.  Whether we want to simply believe them as true, research the facts within, or work to disprove them, they will always be stories.  After all, Chris Kyle now lives solely in legend, but only because he now exists solely as a character within a story; a fate that awaits us all in time.  For pragmatic reasons, then, the stories others tell, the stories we tell about them, and the stories we tell of ourselves, work as identifiers, assisting us in making sense of life in our determined search for meaningful fictions.”

17 February 2015, Origin Story


For a period of time, I put off writing a post for the Non Religion and Secularity Research Network’s blog: http://blog.nsrn.net.  This wasn’t because I didn’t want to, but because I was worried I didn’t really know what to write.  While I’ve been critical of their term usage, doing that again seemed like overkill.  Instead, I decided to write a post that presented the discursive approach I adopted for my Thesis.  To get to that, though, I felt like I should tell the story about how I got involved in the study of Atheism itself.  This post was a companion, then, an informative, and personal, precursor for the one published on their blog: http://blog.nsrn.net/2015/02/13/discourse-analysis-and-the-study-of-atheism-definitions-discourse-and-ethnographic-criticism/  

24 February 2014, Tourist Trap Sacred Space


Perhaps one of my all time favourite pieces of art is this painting, by Picasso, of the bombing of Guernica.  I had the opportunity to see it in person in February, after presenting at a workshop on ‘Atheism and Literature in Europe,’ put on by the Blanquerna Observatory’s School of Communications and International Relations, as part of a series of workshops on ‘Religion in the Shaping of European Cultural Identity.’  Here’s a short video of the conference, in which I am briefly featured at the end:

While the worksop was an excellent and a truly great experience, because my time in Spain, and especially Barcelona, was short, I spent most of it going to ‘tourist attractions,’ such as the Sagrada Familia and the Barcelona Cathedral.  This got me thinking about ‘sacred spaces,’ and the focus of this post is on the interesting balance we perform between sacred and profane when we visit such ‘tourist trap sacred spaces,’ such as I’ve done in Jerusalem, the Vatican, and even outside Waco, Texas.

3 March 2015, When Trolling Religion Becomes Religion; Or, Why it’s All Bertrand Russell’s Fault


In my efforts to discursively examine Atheism, one of the routes I’ve taken is following specific lines of influence from one argument to another.  As such, this post presented one of these discursive threads, from Bertrand Russell, to the New Atheism.  More specifically, it followed a particular philosophical discourse that originated with Russell’s argument against the belief in the existence of God, by comparing it to the belief that there exists a ‘china teapot’ orbiting in an elliptical between the Earth and Mars.  By fictionalising a belief that is as equally impossible to prove or disprove, Russell inaugurated what I coined as the ‘argument from fictionalisation,’ a position promoted by a number of individuals across the last fifty years.  In specific, I then compared the same usage of this fictionalisation between three ‘invented religions,’ religious organisations designed on the premise that their deity is as equally provable and disprovable (the Flying Spaghetti Monster, the Invisible Pink Unicorn, and the Church of Bacon) as ‘God,’ which in turn provides for us an interesting discursive type of Atheism.

10 March 2015, The Zombie Apocalypse Secularization Thesis

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Zombies are very popular lately.  Then again, zombies have been popular for quite some time now.  As entities that have infiltrated a number of popular culture media, from movies and television shows, to graphic novels, the living dead have been a part of ‘horror’ for at least a century.  What this also means is that the discursive influences on the writing of these outlets has changed just as much as the culture within which they’ve thrived.  Do these films/shows/graphic novels tell us something about that culture?  This post answered ‘yes,’ with a specific focus on the role of religion in the twentieth-century.  By looking at how the origin of the living dead turned from Alien and ‘Voodoo’ inspired, to George Romero’s liminal ‘they simply exist’ era, which was then replaced with the discourse of disease (plague/epidemiology), the Zombie narrative provides for us an insight into the influence of secularisation: a transition from a discourse based on either mythical or mysterious influences, to that of the scientific and empirical.

17 March 2015, Tell me about your mother, Mr. Hubbard


Back in my younger, and perhaps more naive, days, I wrote a paper where I analysed the philosophy, and thus foundation, of L. Ron Hubbard’s ideas that turned into Scientology, via the deconstructive lens of Freudian psychology.  In essence, I took Freud’s three part ‘Psychic Apparatus,’ and compared it to Hubbard’s notion of Body, Mind, and Thetan.  While the result might have led to a criticism of one against the other, the focus of my post was more narrative driven.  As I concluded: “as narrative devices, as stories that tell us something about how these men interpreted their world, and thus in turn tell us something about them personally, they function on an entirely different spectrum of criticism.  Thus, rather than merely trying to connect dots that might creatively lead us to some sort of conclusion, using these narratives to make sense of the individuals who told them, as well as the individuals who use them, becomes that much more useful than even the most pragmatic attempts at comparing like with like.”

24 March 2015, Comedic Criticism: A Discursive Source of Atheism


In another attempt at discursively examining Atheism, this post utilised comedy as a medium.  In this example, however, I got a bit more specific about exactly how I was going to use these discourses to examine Atheism.  By adopting three ‘anti-religious comedy routines’ (Ricky Gervais, Bill Maher, and George Carlin) as ‘texts,’ I then analysed them via Norman Fairclough‘s ‘three analytically separable elements:’ “the production of the text, the text itself, and the reception of the text” (10).  By closely examining the language used by each individual in the three examples, I produced a number of correlative discursive elements across each.  These, then, contributed to a discursive understanding of the Atheism presented within each account.  When compared to three clips of the New Atheists promoting their Atheism, this sort of analysis assists us in better understanding how such relatable philosophical arguments are disseminated via different venues (genres), as well as how they are received by a larger ‘public.’  In the end, I made the following conclusion: “this works much better than merely speculating or theoretically stipulating what we think these sorts of things (like Atheism) mean, and is therefore a much more useful (and, to be honest, more enjoyable) means of researching precarious concepts such as ‘religion’ or ‘Atheism.'”

31 March 2015, ‘Statistics can prove anything’ (and other fictions used by New Atheists)


This is perhaps more of a ‘reactionary’ post.  Toward the end of the semester, and thus the end of my final tutorial period on Atheism in Debate, I was looking for specific ways to approach New Atheism in a manner that both presented their arguments from an unbiased and objective, yet also critical, perspective.  For this week, I chose their bad scholarship, which, regardless of whether or not someone agrees with them, is something that should infuriate everyone.  Three of them have PhDs, after all.  That doesn’t mean I assume anyone with a PhD should automatically be considered smart; but come on.  Getting a PhD means you’ve been trained on how to do good research, how to build your arguments on solid data, and how to avoid becoming a caricature of bias and opinion.  Nevertheless, what the New Atheists do is bad research, of which they are then arrogantly proud.  It’s sort of embarrassing.  The purpose of this post was, however, not just meant to point out their poor scholarship.  Instead, it was designed as a means to assist my students in understanding how when they do good scholarship, the sort of arguments that they make can be even more meaningful than when they’re presented with the passion one might associate with the rhetoric of a zealot.

7 April 2015, Thank God for Book Reviews

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Book reviews are often considered ‘easy’ publications, something much less strenuous than an article, monograph, or edited volume.  When simplified, they come across as rather simple: read a book, summarise it, tell the reader what was good and bad about it.  With my first experience writing a review (on which this post was focused), I quickly learned this is not the case.  In fact, the three-part story that I present in this post functions as a personal account of the lessons learned through writing this review: how the editing process works in the writer’s favour, how defending your argument (such as my capitalisation of the ‘A’ in Atheism) reminds you of why you are doing the research, and how copy-editing, or having someone re-write your work, and then arguing in favour of your version, builds a sense of confidence in one’s writing.  My review itself can be found here: http://www.secularismandnonreligion.org/articles/10.5334/snr.au/ 

14 April 2015, Whose Story is it Anyway?


This post was inspired by the premier of the fifth season of HBO’s hit series, Game of Thrones.  Specifically, it was inspired by the furore expressed by many fans that, unlike the previous four seasons, this one would be mostly the product of original writing, rather than adaptation, as the series had thus far exhausted almost all of the story published in book form by George R.R. Martin.  I took this as an opportunity to discuss the perhaps disappointing fact that all writing, regardless of whether it is original work or an adaptation, is still an artifice, and is thus entirely made-up.  There is, then, no such thing as an ‘original source.’  Using a quote from Clifford Geertz’s Works and Lives wherein he states that acknowledging ethnographic writing as just as creative and literary as fictional writing, is the same as realising a magic trick is, in fact, not really magic.  Thus, my conclusion stated: “In a world where everything is fiction, or rather, where everything is artifice, the notion that an adaptation is telling a story incorrectly is rather moot.  Even when the ‘original’ author might agree.  In the end, all stories are adaptations, even when they are initially told.  Which also means that all stories, just like looking at the discourse that gives meaning to a word, rather than just defining it, are neither right, nor wrong, by the mere fact that all stories are nothing more than re-tellings of a story none of us will ever see.”

21 April 2015, Cheaters never prosper. Well, that’s not true. Sometimes they do.

money books

Around the end of April, I began putting together what would eventually become the final draft of the Thesis.  I still had a few months to go, but I didn’t know that at this point, and any full draft, once finished, felt like the final thing.  As well, a colleague and close friend, Jonathan Tuckett, successfully defended his, adding to the anxiety.  For these reasons, I found myself leaning (perhaps a bit too much) on distractions to break up the stress that comes with finally being finished.  One of those came in the story on which I based this post: an individual on the website reddit posted a meme in which they admitted to submitting a thesis, and thus earning a PhD, that was entirely ghost written.  As I sank deeper into the anxiety of polishing off one, more, draft, this story hit rather close to home, so I decided to investigate a bit more into the world of academic plagiarism.  What I found was both interesting and disheartening.  The conclusion I put together was a criticism not just plagiarism, but of the academy itself, an argument that as the academic world becomes more and more like a business, the more and more profit-gaining opportunities (like plagiarism) begin to make sense.

28 April 2015, Based on ‘Real Life’

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This post dealt exclusively with two examples wherein fiction and ethnography appeared to merge into a category of similar, yet distinct, types of fictional writing. The first was a New York Times article by Laura Tavares on the use of Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird as a source of cultural insight into the American south, and the struggle of racial violence.  The second was a relatable discussion of the subtle differences between a novel as an ethnographic source, and an ethnographic description, by Thomas Hylland Eriksen.  Together, these two examinations worked to further blur the line between ‘fiction’ and ‘non-fiction,’ particularly concerning how both are products of creative artifice.  As I concluded, in regard to the cover image used of the film Noah as being ‘based on real life:’ “While I am quite willing to blatantly claim that all textual representations are fiction by means of their ‘artifice-ness,’ this of course brings us into a discourse where, like the notion of ‘everything is fiction,’ we get somewhat distracted by what might be ‘based on real life’ and what might be a story assumed by some as the same.  This is not equal, however, to a declaration that the story of Noah, which might be defined as both, either, or neither a myth and truth, is definitively one of these things.  Rather, my point of having it here, and the point of this post in general, is a reminder that when we declare ‘everything’ as fiction because of the role that artifice plays in the creation and presentation of interpreted ‘things,’ a movie about Noah and a movie about William Wallace are equally ‘based on real life.’  In other words, the distinction between what is ‘fact’ (quantitative data about lynchings in the US) and what is ‘fictional’ (Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird) might blur into a perception where they become equal representations of some type of ‘truth.’  I, for one, am ok with this.”

5 May 2015, The Spiritual Menu: An Alternative Solution to the World Religions Paradigm

Howard Jacobs

The Hotel Preston, in Nashville, Tennessee, has listed on its in-room amenities an intriguing option: A Spiritual Menu.  What this means is, at any time, day or night, a guest of the hotel may request a religious text brought to his or her room for some quiet reflection.  For me, this led to a discussion of the World Religions Paradigm, and its limitations on the broader study of religion.  While on the surface, the options provided by the Preston Hotel’s menu seem to simply further support the WRP, I argued that is, in fact, providing narrative sources, rather than theoretical interpretations.  Or, as I stated in my conclusion: “by translating the mythological and doctrinal narratives that are used by individuals in the process of their ‘religious identity construction’ as a ‘menu,’ through which they isolate their own discursive understandings of ‘religion,’ we can form a much more complex and varied person-to-person perspective on how individuals use, and thus define, the concept for their own intentions.  Which, I believe, seems much more in keeping with the culture of religious studies.”

12 May 2015, The Profitable Age 


Based on Bruno Latour’s Gifford Lecture series here in Edinburgh, and particularly on his notion of the ‘Anthropocene,’ this post presented my argument that we are, currently, living in what I call the ‘Profitable Age.’  I based this argument on evidence such as the ‘trilogy’ that Peter Jackson created out of Tolkien’s short novel, The Hobbit, as well as the similar film franchises based on the Fast and Furious, Harry Potter, the Hunger Games, and the Marvel Cinematic Universe.  Politically, this is evinced by Supreme Court decisions such as Citizens United vs. The Federal Elections Commission.  Academically, this is found within not only the rising costs of education, but in the rise (and thus debt contributing) of ‘for-profit’ educations centres.  Each of these equally contributed to my theory.  Or, and as I stated in my conclusion: “This is a Profitable Age.  Whether that is defined by film or novel franchises, by political developments, or the business of academia, it seems more often than not that the world in which we are living is dictated by profit.  How this then dictates the way we move forward, and whether that might mean a diminishment of value, is something we will have to wait and see.”

19 May 2015, We’re All Novelists

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At this point in my story, I had finally finished the Thesis, and turned it in.  So, for this week’s post I turned that into a story itself.  More specifically, I told a story about how on certain occasions life looks like the plot of a novel, with characters and sets and plots designed for some ultimate purpose.  This story, the story about my thesis, was one of those examples.  Mixing in my turn to fiction for the PhD, and focusing on the journey I have taken to get the Thesis written, I also took the opportunity to weave in my theory that all writing is fictional, which then led to the argument that a thesis is as equally a novel as those texts on which my research was focused.  We, then, are equally novelists, as the theses we write tell, in their own way, a part of our story.

26 May 2015, In Memoriam

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In honour of Memorial Day in the United States, this post focused on the religious diversity found within the U.S. National Cemeteries, especially Arlington.  At the top of each headstone is a religious symbol, chosen by the deceased or his or her family, to symbolise the religious beliefs of the individual interred.  While originally these symbols were isolated to a few types for Christian and Jewish, the symbols permitted (and thus accepted) by the United States Department of Veteran’s Affairs have grown to accept a wide spectrum of religious beliefs, including Atheism, Wicca, and Odinism.  In fact, the symbols permitted and accepted keep growing, a testament, as I argued, to the religious diversity (and freedom) found within the United States.

2 June 2015, Fictional Anthropology: Making Sense of Observation by Looking through an Imaginary Lens


In late May I was given the opportunity to present at the Old Religion and New Spirituality conference, at the University of Tartu.  Unfortunately, our plane out of Edinburgh was delayed en route to Amsterdam for weather issues, and we subsequently missed our flight to Estonia.  In order to make the best of a bad situation, we chose to stay in Amsterdam for a few nights.  On our last day, we had a few hours before our afternoon flight, and given the rain, decided to waste the time in a movie theatre.  We saw Mad Max: Fury Road.

While the film has proven quite successful, both with critics and at the Box Office, I decided to use it as the basis for what I called a ‘dream course,’ those classes we hear about where the instructor has created a connection between some subject and a popular medium.  Here is the course I created:

Title: Fictional Anthropology: Making Sense of Observation by Looking through an Imaginary Lens

Description: When we read Malinowski’s seminal work, Argonauts of the Western Pacific, the famed anthropologist describes for us the requirements necessary of a truly objective cultural observation.  While this gives us a useful means of observing, recording, and writing about an other’s culture, it sometime leaves us without a practical description of how that might be done.  With this course we will apply the methodology of anthropological observation to a more ‘hands-on’ experience by making sense of a ‘fictional culture.’  What this will entail is a detailed observation of the world created by George Miller for his film “Mad Max: Fury Road.”  Alongside reading Malinowski’s Argonauts, we will try to determine the ‘imponderabilia’ of the culture within the film.  We will take field notes, compare insights, and even construct short ethnographic representations, both empirically objective and reflexively subjective, in order to make sense of the methodological requirements demanded of an anthropologist’s job in the field.  As an introductory course, those interested need not have any prior knowledge about anthropology, though students from all levels are warmly invited.

9 June 2015, The Malaise


By June, I had reached the post-thesis malaise.  This is that time between submission and defence where you find yourself wanting to separate as much from the damned thing, but also realise you need to prepare as much as possible for the viva.  So, for this post, I wrote about it.  A cathartic attempt at vocalising the anxiety that comes from suddenly being finished with the Thesis, but still having it there, in your mind.  It’s like having an obsession that haunts your thoughts, whilst you sit on the cusp of the end of it all.  As I stated: “To conclude, the malaise that I associate here with the post-submission mindset is in its own way indicative of a ‘crisis,’ not only in our confidence of what it is we have written, but in the loss of the obsession that is writing a thesis.  It is a malaise defined by this double loss, a horrific perfect storm bolstered by a separation from that which has defined us for years, and the ultimate concern that the typo on page 137 will be the deciding factor in our inevitable failure.”

16 June 2015, Bully for Free Speech

nelson 2

By mid-June, commencement ceremonies in both the US and Britain are in full swing, which also means individuals of merit are providing audiences with commencement addresses.  One such address came from Ian McEwan, given at Dickinson College, in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.  While I gained a great deal of respect over the last five years for McEwan, given that my PhD research focused on two of his novels, I found myself in sincere disagreement with the theme of his address: the defence of free speech and an admonition of those unwilling to stand beside the authors of the recently attacked Charlie Hebdo.  That is, though I do agree with him that free speech is a human right for which we must always fight, I could not help but find an almost hypocritical argument within his lack of empathy for those who take such offence at certain examples, that they respond with violence.  Empathy, I argued, is the ability to understand another’s perspective, so that even when we despise their reaction, we still understand why they might have reacted that way.  Ironically, this thinking comes across in his fiction, though was sadly missing in his commencement address.

23 June 2015, Identity Matters


For a couple weeks over the summer, news outlets were seemingly obsessed with Rachel Dolezal, who had resigned as President of the Spokane, Washington branch of the NAACP after it was revealed that though she had been presenting herself as ‘black,’ she was, in fact, biologically caucasian.  As ‘identity’ was a major part of my research, this of course caught my attention.  By using her story as data, her use of ‘creative non-fiction’ in identifying as ‘African-American’ becomes an intriguing insight into the difference between self-identification and normative categories.  As a tie-on to my previous post using stand-up comedy as a discursive source on Atheism, I presented this conclusion: “Issues of racial identity are likely to arise within nations (such as the US) wherein the ethnic and racial identities of the citizens that make up that nation’s culture come from a myriad of different origins.  In response to this, comedians have attempted to address this in an equal number of ways.  As I perceive it, perhaps the three best, if not most memorable, are the links below.  I place them here as a supplement to my own opinion, a translation, if you will, of a heavily serious topic, textually transformed into a comedic response.”




30 June 2015, A Day in the (Fictional) Life


This post came about a week prior to my viva, so I felt the best way to deal with this would be to fictionalise a normal day in my life, which I also fictionalised, for the benefit of the story.  In this post I described a regular day, as experienced, by an American, in Scotland.  I designed the post to make it read like an ethnographic field report, partly to support my theory that ‘everything is fiction,’ and partly because it was fun to do it.

7 July 2015, Nothing to be Afraid Of

i'm finished

This post came five days after I successfully defended my Thesis.  I used this as an opportunity not only to share my experiences (and the idea that it was, in the end, nothing to be afraid of), but to discuss the anxieties writers feel, when writing.  To do this, I used a quote from Hemingway that I think best encapsulates the perfect advice for a writer, of any type of fiction:

For Christ sake write and don’t worry about what the boys will say nor whether it will be a masterpiece nor what. I write one page of masterpiece to ninety one pages of shit. I try to put the shit in the wastebasket. You feel you have to publish crap to make money to live and let live. All write but if you write enough and as well as you can there will be the same amount of masterpiece material (as we say at Yale). You can’t think well enough to sit down and write a deliberate masterpiece and if you could get rid of Seldes and those guys that nearly ruined you and turn them out as well as you can and let the spectators yell when it is good and hoot when it is not you would be all right. (Re-printed via www.lettersofnote.com)

14 July 2015, In Comparison a Disappointment Dwells

new yorker

In mid-July, Harper Lee’s second novel, Go Set a Watchmen, was published, to mixed reviews.  In particular, much of the disappointment felt by reviewers and readers alike was Lee’s description of Atticus Finch, the beloved father of Scout and proud advocate for racial equality in To Kill a Mockingbird, as an old racist.  This disappointment stemmed from a shock, as if suddenly this literary hero’s true self was revealed.  I took this disappointment and applied it to a similar comparison between Malinowski’s seminal Argonauts of the Western Pacific (which has been seen as the paragon of textualized participant observation), and the diary he kept, published some twenty years after his death.  Like this new Atticus, Malinowski’s diary revealed a betrayal of sorts, showing readers his true opinions, his bias, and his more human (subjective) side.  By comparing these two comparisons, I concluded that the result of comparison would only ever lead to disappointment.

21 July 2015, The Expert in the Room

know it all

My two favourite paintings a the Scottish National Gallery are these two by William Dyce:

david in highlandschrist in highlands

I enjoy these paintings because they represent a different perspective, a contextualization of two Biblical figures (David and Jesus) into Dyce’s setting: the Scottish highlands.  This post, however, only used these as entry points into a larger discussion about the ‘expert level’ people adopt when they gain knowledge about something.  Likewise, this presented the opportunity to further discuss the reality that people with PhDs, whilst knowledgeable on single subjects, are not knowledgable about everything. I used some images by Matt Might to represent this, particularly this one:

phd all knowledge

28 July 2015, Shameless Self-Promotion

self promotion

This post was, as the title suggested, a shameless self-promotion.  Earlier in the year I submitted an article for consideration to a special volume of the journal Science, Religion, and Culture.  It was, to my surprise and delight, accepted.  So, I used this post to promote it, as well as the other articles included.  It’s really that simple.  Here’s my article: “Discourse Analysis and the Definition of Atheism.”

4 August 2015, It’s the Little Differences

little things

Last July, the UK Home Secretary, Theresa May, announced that there would be major changes to the visa permissions and restrictions for non-european individuals coming to study in the UK.  At first, I figured this wouldn’t affect us, and focused this post on the ‘little differences’ that make big waves for people living within cultures not their own.  Part of my discussion included a Guardian article by Adam Trettel, who made many points about feeling ‘unwanted’ or ‘different’ while studying here in the UK.  Though I wouldn’t know it for some time, these visa changes would indeed affect us, and cause us to feel our own sense of ‘difference’ and ‘unwantedness,’ but that wouldn’t happen for some time.  A post on this will be coming soon.

11 August 2015, Language Games


In early August, we took our last trip to Paris, a city that we have come to love, not only through multiple trips, but also after I lived there for two different months to learn French at L’Institut Catholique de Paris.  This post was a brief description of this last trip, and how when we (people) visit foreign countries we tend to ‘create’ selves that we wish to be seen by others.  In turn, those others also ‘present’ the ‘selves’ they want us to see, a never-ending cycle of performances that contribute to an interactional back-and-forth between entities developing an identity of ‘humanity.’

18 August 2015, Nothing is Real, and Nothing To Get Hung About

warehouse 51

This post took its focus from the idea that, without us giving things meaning, nothing means anything.  I presented a number of examples where this might prove valid: a controversial Kouros statue at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Southern California; the Fälschermuseum, in Vienna, Austria, and the Museo Del Falso at the University of Salerno’s Center for the Study of Forgery; the Hitler Diaries, forged documents created and sold by Konrad Kujau to the German magazine Stern, the UK’s Sunday Times, and the American magazine Newsweek; the exact replica of the Lascaux Cave, created to preserve the delicate art of the original, which can no longer be seen in person; and the genuineness of the items available for purchase on the website  Screenbid from the AMC hit show, Mad Men.  By comparing these examples, I concluded that there is no difference between something that is ‘authentic’ and something that is not.  The only difference is the one we give to the former, in our attempts at differentiating the two.  In this way, nothing is actually real.

25 August 2015, Live from Erfurt, It’s the XXI Quinquennial Congress of the International Association for the History of Religions!


This post was the first of a series of ‘live from’ posts, where I was writing from a particular conference.  This one came from the XXI Quinquennial Congress of the IAHR.  This was an amazing conference, and something that I had been looking forward to since I first arrived in Edinburgh.  The post itself was about the panel on which I presented, and how these sorts of gatherings remind us just how small the world is, via our theoretical and methodological differences.  Also, side note: I wrote this with a cracking hangover.

1 September 2015, Vanilla English


After the XXI Quinquennial Congress of the IAHR, we all went our separate ways.  My way home was via Berlin.  This post told that story, specifically about a simple insult that I received from a fellow passenger just prior to boarding the flight, from which it takes its title: vanilla english.  While it was a comment made in passing with an Englishman drinking beer at an Irish bar in Berlin, it also reminded me of the diversity of the IAHR (and particularly the panel in which I presented), and the incorrect labels we sometimes assume about things that might seem ‘bland’ from our particular perspective.

8 September 2015, Live from Canterbury, It’s the Annual Conference of the British Association for the Study of Religions


Shortly after the IAHR, a few of us attended the annual conference of the British Association for the Study of Religions at the University of Kent, in Canterbury.  Rather than what I had done before, using the post to just describe my presentation, I took this opportunity to tell the story of the BASR conference’s role in my life in Edinburgh.  Writing on the train south from Edinburgh, I described how I came to associate the BASR conference with the beginning of each new semester, and how this one, perhaps my last, would once again act as the penultimate start of my last September in Edinburgh, and the last conference I would attend in Britain.

15 September 2015, A Stereotypical Post

barbie 3

With the start of Fall, I decided to talk about stereotypes, particularly the one that associates Starbuck’s Pumpkin spice Lattes with ‘basic white girls.’  While this, in its own way, provided a humorous route into the use of stereotypes as discursive data, it also proved rather telling about the way we develop these stereotypes and what they tell us about ourselves, and those who create them.  As I concluded: “These are stereotypes, and stereotypes are interesting things.  Sure, they can tell us a lot about ‘other’ people, about their customs and culture, and about the way they define themselves.  In this way, they even represent a type of discourse: language used by individuals that we perceive in a particular way, and thus the language we use to describe those ‘others’ in a way that makes sense for both their context, as well as for our description itself. Yet, they also tell us a lot about ourselves as well, not just in how we perceive those ‘others,’ but in how we might thus be stereotyping ourselves in the process.  After all, if identity construction is all about projecting an image we want to be seen by others, which is then validated by an external entity (that other person), and vice versa ad nauseam, then aren’t we constantly being stereotyped as we stereotype others.  This is something we should all consider, particularly concerning the type of terminology not only being used in Europe at the moment concerning the difference between a ‘refugee’ and an ‘immigrant,’ but about how we perceive others on a day-to-day basis in our interactions and conversations with other human beings.”

22 September 2015, Thesis for Ants

for ants

In September, the redditor, /u/FaithMilitant posed the following simple question to the subreddit, /r/AskReddit:

PhD’s of Reddit. What is a dumbed down summary of your thesis?

Based on this, I focused this post on a discursive bias concerning the perception people have about what constitutes a ‘PhD.’  In essence, my argument stated that individuals tend to associate the PhD with research in the sciences, rather than the humanities, based on the higher ranked responses to /u/FaithMilitant’s question.  In fact, this was my thesis:

This discussion represents a particular bias, or rather, a particular discursive perception of the concept ‘PhD,’ and how the public might perceive of that concept as something more predominately associated with the sciences, rather than the humanities.  

In relation to the notion that there currently exists a ‘crisis’ in the humanities, or that the humanities is a dying art, this was my conclusion: “more than anything, perhaps it reminds us that though there are differences between these two fields, the level of importance between a thesis that tests the accuracy, or even existence, of a Higgs-Boson, and a thesis that argues that all writing, from ethnography to a novel, is fictional by means of its ‘artificial’ nature, is in itself a fictional differentiation established by our discursive perceptions, and perpetuated by the language of random sample data.  Understanding how that works will largely influence both the future of the humanities, as well as the future of education worldwide.  After all, how can we be expected to promote and describe our research, if we can’t even control how those descriptions fit into the discourse on what it means to have a ‘PhD?’”

29 September 2015, Close Encounters

mona lisa 2

This post came about after my usual museum companion and I failed to see the The Amazing World of M.C. Escher exhibition at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art.  When we arrived, two days before the exhibition closed, we found a line of people that stretched all the way from the entrance to the street.  It was, by our estimation, at least an hour wait before we would get in.  As we sat and watched these people queuing up to see a few etching by the famous artists, I started to think about how rituals change over time, and how they are influenced by new additions and generational gaps.  For instance, is seeing Escher’s work ‘in person’ the reason we stand in line to see artwork we can view, in perhaps better detail, on the internet?  That is, is it the ritual of seeing the work, not actually seeing the work, that becomes the important part of the experience?  If so, then are sacred rituals (going to church, etc.) the same: is doing the ritual more important than what the ritual is venerating?  Or, in other words, is worshiping God more important than the belief that God exists?

6 October 2015, An Insight into the Real Me

sherlock 2

This post was short, because it it didn’t really require all that much more commentary than what I added.  Alongside this clip, which I think best describes my ridiculous thoughts about things.

13 October 2015, Perhaps the Most Logical Vote is a Write-In

Screen Shot 2015-10-13 at 12.58.52

In this post, I took on relational terms, and in particular the term ‘nones.’ I haven’t, as evidenced by a few of the posts listed here, been much of a fan of relational terms.  I feel like they don’t quite represent the individuals we study well enough, and leave far too much room for ambiguity.  For this criticism, then, I chose to take on the ‘none’ category, and concluded with a useful (albeit likely disappointing) comparison: “The term ‘nones,’ and with that any terminology that has adopted the prefix ‘no’ or ‘non,’ thanks in great part by sociologists attempting to embody how individuals define themselves in relation to the religions of others ‘broadly conceived,’ seems like an attempt at defining what we can only presume is a large and growing group of like-minded individuals by simply describing them by what they aren’t.  Which, in my opinion, seems incredibly unfair.  After all, I’m not ‘non-British,’ I’m an ‘American.’  To call myself the former is just silly, and, really, doesn’t seem all that useful.”  For this reason I offered this solution, a ‘write-in’ option that I think will help assuage some of the ambiguity about this topic:

“In the space provided, please describe how you identify religiously, using the terms you prefer.”  

20 October 2015, I Know it When I See It

Raquel on the cross

How do we define ‘religion?’  Do we focus on rituals?  On belief?  Do we use dimensional or categorical means to define what we think religion might be?  In this post, I used a conversation between colleagues where we considered these questions to point out a means of defining religion that I thought worked best: I’ll know it when I see it.  This, sadly, is not my original thought.  I, in fact, borrowed it from Justice Potter Stewart’s exact expression, “I know it when I see it,” which came from his concurrent opinion on the 1964 Supreme Court case, Jacobellis vs. Ohio.  The case itself dealt with free speech and the difference between pornographic material and ‘artistic expression.’  Though the Court found that the film in question (Louis Malle‘s The Lovers) did not represent pornographic material, they were unable to define what constituted the definition ‘pornography.’  In his attempt to address this, Stewart stated:

I shall not today attempt further to define the kinds of material I understand to be embraced within that shorthand description, and perhaps I could never succeed in intelligibly doing so. But I know it when I see it, and the motion picture involved in this case is not that.

So, by applying this to the question of ‘how do we define religion,’ my response was equally the same: I know it when I see.  Of course, while I do (and did) accept that this might lean “perhaps a bit too precariously toward the substantive side of the debate, essentially arguing that what I think is religious is defined as such for no other reason than my own convictions,” I also feel (felt) that it’s equally “rather clarifying in its simplicity.”  After all, as I concluded: “just like how I might be able to determine something as ‘religious’ when I see it, this methodological approach seems to me that much better than the theoretical discourse of the last century, merely because I know it is.”

27 October 2015, Live from Cambridge, its Ways of Knowing: The 4th Annual Graduate Conference on Religion at Harvard Divinity School!


This was my last ‘live from’ post of this year, this time from the 4th Annual Graduate Conference on Religion at Harvard Divinity School, ‘Ways of Knowing.’  While I chose not to write about the presentation I gave (I did that the next week), I did write about stereotypes, and in particular, those about Boston.  I used these three movie trailers:




Not surprisingly, the Boston that we found was quite different from that portrayed in these films.  Once again stereotypes tried to influence my perception which, anthropologically, led to this thesis:

Our depictions of culture, either fictional or ethnographic, are isolated representations that, though we may emphatically defend as authentic, are unique to our own perceptions, and thus can never truly be so.  That is, even when we try to ensure that our representations honour our subjects with as much authenticity as possible, we can never truly grasp the reality of a place and its people because, no matter how hard we try, our representations are, by their inherent nature, the products of artifice.

3 November 2015, An Atheist Gospel: The Quest for the Fictional Jesus and the Gospel Novel as Atheist Discourse

jesus muscle

This post was a proposal, a detailed description of my post-thesis research.  It describes a number of details about how I will be using select ‘Atheist gospels’ to discursively analyse the Atheist arguments and philosophies found within each author’s shared re-write of the gospel narrative.  Within my description I provided a chapter outline, research proposal, research program, and bibliography.  Hopefully no one steals the idea.  Or, if nothing else, hopefully this will act as a kind of ‘copyright’ so if they do, I’ll be able to claim ownership.

10 November 2015, In Praise of Polyvocality: An Early Preview


This post details the response that I wrote for Christopher Cotter‘s interview with Professor Johannes Quack for the Religious Studies Project.

The interview can be found here: http://www.religiousstudiesproject.com/podcast/indian-rationalism-and-a-relational-approach-to-nonreligion/

My response can be found here: http://www.religiousstudiesproject.com/2015/11/12/in-praise-of-polyvocality/

My response, as I plotted out in this post, was, in essence, this:

when viewed as a cultural unit, in the same way we would objectively assess the subjects of an anthropological examination, the polyvocality of this discursive field becomes a collective of individual identities conforming into a group one.  Thus, rather than the result being the “frustrating morass of contradictions and cross-purposes” (13) that Bullivant predicts, our different theoretical approaches to Atheism/non-religion/un-belief/ir-religion becomes a useful cultural unit with which we might, from a third-level perspective, make sense of the field itself. That is, if we step back and look at ourselves just as objectively as we look at our subjects, our differences transform from an atonal mess of scholastic disagreements, into a more discursively valuable cultural system.

17 November 2015, Everything is Fiction: A Discursive Year in Review

hemmingway 2

This brings us, then, to this post, which I have listed here to further the notion (as I’ve done throughout this year) that everything, even this blog, is fictional by the fact that it is designed, constructed, created, and imagined via my intentions.  As discursive data, however, it also provides an interesting insight into those things that influenced my thoughts.  Here’s to another year.

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